ANNALS OF MEDICAL AND SURGICAL PRACTICE 2020-09-06T12:54:30+00:00 Prof Afekhide E. Omoti Open Journal Systems <p>The Annals of Medical and Surgical Practice is a peer-reviewed journal published on behalf of<br />the Nigerian Medical Association, Edo State Branch. This journal publishes original<br />communications in the form of original research, high-quality case report, short communications,<br />letter to the editor and systematic reviews on clinical medicine (surgery, surgical specialties,<br />paediatrics, internal medicine, public health, obstetrics and gynaecology etc), laboratory<br />medicine, and other specialties in the basic medical science, the allied health science and<br />health related social science. The journal is published twice yearly, in the months of June<br />and December. </p> RADIOLOGIC EXAMINATION OF THE EYE AND ORBIT: A REVIEW 2020-08-02T18:48:10+00:00 OU Ogbeide AE Omoti <p><strong>Background:</strong> The value of radiologic examination of the eye and orbit in evaluating ocular, orbital or peri-orbital trauma, foreign bodies and tumors cannot be over-emphasized. This review aims to analyze the different radiologic techniques available.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Information for this review article was sourced from journal articles, internet explorer, Google, Google Scholar, Yahoo, msn, Firefox, AJOL, Medline and Pubmed search engines. The search words include ocular injuries, foreign bodies, orbital fractures, trauma, radiologic modalities, and about 50 publications reviewed.<br><strong>Results:</strong> Several techniques have been recognized as components of radiologic examination of the eye and orbit; these have been grouped into plain radiography, conventional tomography, ocular sonography, computerized axial tomography, magnetic resonance imaging.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Improvements and change in the management of ocular pathologies will depend on the availability of various imaging modalities which were discussed in the review</p> 2020-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 EMERGING TRENDS IN THE PATTERN OF PRESENTATION AND RISK FACTORS OF SEVERITY OF PRIMARY OPEN GLAUCOMA IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA 2020-08-02T18:55:34+00:00 RITA O Momoh CLARE E Gilbert <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to determine the current trend in the pattern of presentation and associated risk factors for advanced/end-stage glaucoma in patients attending a tertiary hospital in southern Nigeria.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> Records of 324 patients with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma seen consecutively over a 24-month period were reviewed. Data extracted included socio-demographic information and clinical findings such as visual acuity, vertical cup-disc ratio and intraocular pressure. Two levels of severity were defined; mild/moderate and advanced/end-stage. Univariate and multivariable analysis were undertaken to determine independent risk factors for severity.<br><strong>Results:</strong> There were more males 174 (53.7%) and the mean (SD) age was 52.24 (+18.00) years. Two hundred and forty-seven persons (76.2%) had normal vision, 27 (8.3%) were visually impaired and 49 (15.1%) were blind in the better eye. The mean (SD) VCDR for RE and LE were 0.76 (+0.17) and 0.76 (+0.16) respectively. Overall 183 (56.5%) had mild/moderate disease while 141 (43.5%) had advanced /end-stage disease. Independent risk factors for more severe disease were increasing age and intraocular pressure greater than 21mmHg. Adjusted OR for age: 40-59 [2.92 (CI:1.23-6.95), p=0.015]; ≥60 [Adjusted OR: 7.76 (CI:3.12- 9.31), p&lt;0.0001] and for IOP: &gt;21mmHg [Adjusted OR: 4.36 (CI: 2.53 -7.52), p&lt;0.0001].</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Over two-fifths of glaucoma patients presented with advanced disease, however the pattern is better than reported from previous studies. Awareness creation and screening for glaucoma should be sustained to reduce the incidence of glaucoma blindness.</p> 2020-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN A RURAL COMMUNITY IN SOUTH SOUTH NIGERIA 2020-08-04T20:18:28+00:00 FO Erah AM Omatseye <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the knowledge and prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse among secondary school students in a rural community in south-south Nigeria with a view to minimizing the indulgence of students in illicit drugs.<br><strong>Methodology:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 187 senior secondary school students. Data collection was by interviewer administered questionnaires focusing on knowledge of alcohol and drug abuse, commonly abused drugs and the prevalence of drug abuse. A multistage sampling was utilized in selecting the participants which allowed for all participants to have equal chance of being selected for the study. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS version 20.0.Results were presented in tables and frequency distributions. Test of association between commonly abused drugs and knowledge of drug and alcohol abuse were carried out using chi square test and fisher’ exact. Statistical significance was set at p &lt;0.05. Prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse was determined by finding the proportion of respondents who take alcohol or illicit drugs. Respondents who had a knowledge score equivalent of 50% where regarded as having good knowledge of drug and alcohol abuse while those with knowledge score of less than 50% where regarded as having poor knowledge of drug and alcohol abuse.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 187 participants were interviewed. About two-third of the respondents (63.1%) were within the age group of 15-17 years with a mean age (years) of16.02±1.72.Most of the respondents (91.4%) had poor knowledge of drug and alcohol abuse .The prevalence of alcohol abuse was 21.9% while that of drug was 20.9%.The most commonly abused drugs included caffeine 5.9%, codeine 5.3%, marijuana 3.2%, Nicotine 2.1% and cocaine 1.6%.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of substance abuse among the secondary school students were alcohol 21.9%, caffeine 5.9%, codeine 5.3%, marijuana 3.2%, Nicotine 2.1% and cocaine 1.6%</p> 2020-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH LEUKEMIA AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BENIN TEACHING HOSPITAL, BENIN CITY, NIGERIA: A CASE CONTROL STUDY 2020-08-04T20:25:15+00:00 CU Obasi CE Omoti CU Ukponmwan AE Omoti <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To evaluate the frequency and types of ocular manifestations of leukaemia in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.<br><strong>Method:</strong> This is a hospital- based case control study from September 2014 to April 2015. Forty newly diagnosed leukaemic patients were enrolled into the study. Age and sex matched controls were drawn from healthy relatives of patients, staff and students of University of Benin and children of University of Benin Staff School. They had Full Blood Count, Genotype, Fasting blood sugar and other tests done to exclude confounding factors such as diabetes mellitus, HIV and hypertension. All the study subjects were interviewed and had detailed ocular examination. Refraction was done where necessary. Clinical data from each individual was obtained using interviewer administered questionnaires. These were collated and analyzed using SPSS 20.<br><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 160 eyes of 80 subjects were examined. There were forty new patients (cases) with leukaemia and forty controls. The age range for cases was 3 to 78 years with a mean age of 43.28 +21.48 years while the mean age for the controls was 43.30 +21.26 years. The male to female ratio was 1.35:1 with23 (57.5%) males and 17 (42.5%) females. There were 31 (77.5%) adults and 9 (22.5%) children. There were13 (32.5%) acute and 27 (67.5%) chronic leukaemia comprising of 4 (10.0%) acute myelocytic leukaemia, 9 (22.5%) acute lymphocytic leukaemia, 11 (27.5%) chronic myeloid leukaemia and 16 (40.0%) chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Ocular leukaemic disorders were present in 12 (30.0%) patients. The leading leukaemic related anterior segment disorders were conjunctival pallor 18 (22.5%) followed by subconjunctival haemorrhage 12 (15.0%) and proptosis 7 (8.8%), while the leading leukaemic posterior segment disorders were intraretinal haemorrhage 13 (16.3%) followed by retinal infiltrates, venous dilatation and tortuosity 8 (10.0%) each. The eye changes were seen more often in adults 22 eyes (35.5%) than in children 2 eyes (11.1%) and in myeloid leukaemia than in lymphoid leukemia.<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Leukaemic ophthalmopathy occurs in patients living with leukaemia, some of which are potentially blinding disorders. The frequency of these ocular disorders was significant among the cases studied.</p> 2020-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 PREVALENCE OF RESPIRATORY IMPAIRMENT AMONG QUARRY WORKERS IN A STATE IN SOUTH-SOUTH, NIGERIA 2020-08-04T20:36:34+00:00 FO Erah OH Okojie <p><strong>OBJECTIVE:</strong> To determine the prevalence of respiratory impairment among quarry workers in a particular state in South-South Nigeria.<br><strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong> This study was conducted among workers in a quarry industry as cases and control selected among junior staffs of a tertiary institution in the state who were not directly exposed to dust as part of job description. A cross-sectional analytical study design was utilized for the study. The minimum sample size for the study was calculated using the Cochrane formula for minimum sample size determination in a descriptive cross-sectional study. Total population of quarry workers were used as cases and same number of cases used as control. The instrument used included validated semi-structured respiratory questionnaires, stadiometer, spirometer and a dust meter. Data entering and analysis were done using IBM-SPSS version 20.0 software. Results were presented in tables and frequency. Test of association such as chi-square and fisher’s exact was utilized where appropriate. Statistical significance was set at p &lt;0.05<br><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The mean age of the quarry workers was 40.54±10.32 while that of the control group was 34.40±10.00 with most of the respondents in both groups being males. Forty seven point seven percent (47.7%) of the respondents among the quarry workers were drillers, 23.4% plant operators, 7.1% shot firers, and 2.4% pay-loaders. The mean Percentage predicted FVC for quarry workers was 71.84±14.20% while that of the control group was 85.39±12.52%. The mean percentage predicted FEV1 for quarry workers and control group were 79.40±12.73% and 89.46±31.24% respectively. Majority of the quarry workers (78.8%) had lung impairment and were seven times more likely to have lung impairment as compared to the control group. Seventeen point five percent (17.5%) of quarry workers had moderate impairment and 0.2% had severe impairment while 0.5% of the control group had moderate impairment with none having severe lung impairment.<br><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> The prevalence of respiratory impairment among the quarry workers studied was very high with overall prevalence rate of 78.8% when compared to the control group. Among the quarry workers, the prevalence of moderate lung impairment was 17.5% while severe impairment was 0.2%. The prevalence of moderate impairment among the control group was 0.5% while none of the control had severe lung impairment</p> 2020-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 THE MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE DIARRHOEA IN CHILDREN 2020-08-04T20:43:02+00:00 CS Amiebenomo DO Osaghae <p>Acute diarrhoea is a leading cause of less than five years old morbidity and mortality and is both preventable and treatable. This paper reviews acute diarrhoea, in children. As the second leading cause of under five years old morbidity and mortality globally, it is important to have a good understanding of its current treatment. The clinical presentation, complications and management are discussed. The prevention of acute diarrhoea is also discussed since this is an important strategy in the reduction of the burden of this disease in the community. Finally approaches to the prevention of this disease and possible solutions are suggested</p> 2020-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017 TUBERCULOSIS IN MIGRANT/RETURNEENIGERIANS AND GOING FORWARD: REPORT OF TWO CASES OF POTT’S DISEASEAND REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2020-08-04T20:49:32+00:00 Ogbeide Osesogie Usuanle <p><strong>Background:</strong> Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient infectious disease caused by the mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis was and is a serious problem for the individual patient and for public health. Globally there are 8 million new cases per year with 2 to 3 million deaths. Although effective medication and vaccination are available, TB is still present today due to poor hygiene/socio-economic conditions and immune-compromised state (HIV/AIDS). Presently in Nigeria, migration has become social challenge and people with immune-compromised status have an increased risk of developing extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, including spinal TB.<br><strong>Case Report</strong> Two case reports are made with a review of articles to illustrate the trend of Pott’s disease seen in our environment and management of cases reported. Plain radiographs are important in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and Pott’s disease. Paraplegia (Pott’s paraplegia) is the most serious complication of spinal tuberculosis and early detection and management is needed in prevention of this debilitating complication as shown in these cases reported.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong> Various forms of extra-pulmonary complications from tuberculosis especially spinal TB occur and knowledge of the full spectrum of radiological features of the sequelae and complications are important to facilitate diagnosis. The need to review the protocol for Nigerian returnees in the light of the health consequences is highlighted.</p> 2020-09-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2017