• Juliet Ese-Onakewhor Department Of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
  • Emmanuel Uchenna Ogborogu, Department of Ophthalmology, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
  • Omolabake Tolutope Edema Department Of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • Omoti AE Department Of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria


: Leprosy, blindness, lagophthalmos, madarosis, cataract, uveits


Aim: To determine the prevalence and pattern of the ocular manifestations of leprosy.
Methods: This is a cross sectional study to determine the ocular problems among leprosy patients in
Ossiomo Leprosy Centre in Orhionmwon Local Government Area (LGA) of Edo State of Nigeria. Ossiomo
is the only leprosy centre in Edo State of Nigeria. All the patients in this leprosy centre were included in
the study. These had been previously diagnosed by the leprologists in the centre as leprosy cases. The
study lasted for five months. The self-administered questionnaire was used. The adnexae and anterior
segment examinations were done with pen torch and portable hand-held slit lamp. The posterior
segment was examined using a Keeler’s direct ophthalmoscope. Data was statistically analyzed using the
SPSS version 16.
Results: A total of 652 eyes of 326 patients were examined during the period of this study. Mean age for
all the patients was 50.1 years (SD + 27.1). A total of 157 patients were active cases while 169 cases
were released from treatment. Out of the 157 patients who had active disease, 86 were males while 71
were females giving a ratio of 1.2:1. Out of 169 cases who were released from treatment, 103 were
males while 66 (39.0%) were females giving a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. Paucibacillary leprosy was
seen in 254 cases while 72 cases had multibacillary leprosy. The most frequent symptom among active
cases and cases released from treatment was poor vision which occurred in 18.5% and 24.3%
respectively while the least common was redness accounting for 3.2% patients in active cases and 1.7%
cases in released from treatment (RFT) respectively. One hundred and seventy-one cases out of 326 had
visual acuity of 6/6 – 6/18, 117 had visual acuity of <6/18–3/60 while 38 had visual acuity of <3/60 in the
better eye. Five out of the 38 cases had bilateral blindness while 33 had unilateral blindness. Out of the
38 blind, 25 were female while 13 patients were males. Twenty-five
patients (15.9%) with multibacillary leprosy in the active group had madarosis while 16.7% had it in the
RFT group. Similarly, 20.4% paucibacillary cases in the active group had madarosis while 20.7% patients
of the same group in those released from treatment (RFT) had the same lesion. In the active cases,
commonest complications were madarosis 36.3%, impaired corneal sensation 21.7% and lagophthalmos
19.7 %.
Conclusion: This study showed that the ocular lesions seen among these patients included madarosis,
lagophthalmos, entropion with trichiasis, ectropion, impaired corneal sensation, corneal opacity,
keratitis, anterior uveitis, glaucoma and complicated cataract.