A Review of the Ophthalmic findings in Stroke Patients.
Keywords:Stroke, ophthalmic changes, risk factors, posterior segment changes
Visual loss or impairment, in the midst of other bodily weakness or dysfunction from stroke, could prove unbearable even for the brave. Measures to prevent eventual visual loss from a systemic condition would give a lot of satisfaction to the patient, the ophthalmologist and other healthcare givers. Ocular involvement in stroke could arise from damage to parts of the brain that subserve ocular function (motor, visual and others) and/or changes in the physiology of the eye and surrounding structures due to the prevailing risk factors for stroke. Changes in the adnexae include ptosis, difficulty with initiating eye lid closure, difficulty with initiating eye lid opening and inability to keep the eye lids open. Strabismic changes include ocular motor nerve palsies (combined or isolated), conjugate eye deviation (partial and forced), dorsal midbrain syndrome, binocular horizontal, vertical and torsional diplopia, intermittent ophthalmoplegia, wrong-way deviation (contralateral conjugate eye deviation), wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia, one-and-a-half syndrome and eight-and-a-half syndrome. Anterior segment changes include mild iris atrophy. Posterior segment changes include arteriolar tortuosity, enhanced light reflex of the arterioles, increased venular tortuosity, narrower arteriolar calibre, wider venular caliber, arteriovenous nicking, microanuerysms and dot and blot haemorrhages.